I have tried several different markdown formats for displaying mathematical equations (those in replit’s cheatsheet as well as other formats. None seem to work. Does anyone have an example of markdown for mathematical equations that works in Replit? If so, please share.

Though Replit does not have built-in tools for math in Markdown, you can use HTML elements like <sup> and <sub> to create math equations. <sup> represents a superscript ^{like this} and <sub> represents a subscript _{like this}.
So, this Markdown code:

x<sup>2</sup>+<sup>1</sup>/<sub>4</sub>

Would turn into x^{2}+^{1}/_{4}.

If you wanted Replit to have math tools in Markdown, consider making a topic in Feature Requests.